International Journal of Blood Transfusion and Immunohematology - IJBTI - Review Articles, Original Articles, Short Communication, Case Series, Case Reports, Letter to Editors
 
     
Original Article
 
The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections: A focus on hepatitis B virus among blood donors at Hawassa blood bank center, Southern Ethiopia
Fisseha Bonja1, Mintewab Hussein1, Jemal Alemu1, Daniel Gemechu2, Misganaw Birhaneselassie2
1Addis Ababa University, School of Laboratory Sciences, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2Reach Ethiopia, Hawassa University, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Article ID: 100029IJBTIFB2017
doi:10.5348/ijbti-2017-29-OA-2


Address correspondence to:
Misganaw -Birhaneselassie
Mengesha, Hawassa University
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences
Hawassa
Ethiopia

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How to cite this article
Bonja F, Hussein M, Alemu J, Gemechu D, Birhaneselassie. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections: A focus on hepatitis B virus among blood donors at Hawassa blood bank center, Southern Ethiopia. Int J Blood Transfus Immunohematol 2017;7:7–14.


Abstract
Aims: Millions of lives are saved each year through blood transfusion but a safe blood supply is a critical component of health care to prevent the spread of blood-borne infectious diseases. Therefore, it is essential to assess the prevalence and identify the most common culprit and risk in transfusion services.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2015 to May 2015 at the Hawassa blood bank center. Blood donors who donated blood for transfusion purposes were considered for the study. Whole blood was collected and serum was separated from each donor. The sera were used for examination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis. Thick film was prepared and stained using Giemsa for malaria detection.
Results: A total of 384 blood donors were screened during the study period. Among these donors, 67.2% (258) were males and 32.8% (126) were females. The overall prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) was 28 out of 384 (7.29%) apparently healthy donors. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria was 6 (1.6%), 16 (4.2%), 2 (0.5%), 3 (0.8%) and 1 (0.3%) respectively. Two out of 384 (0.5%) had co-infections with HIV-HBV 1 (0.26%) and HBV-HCV 1 (0.26%). A 1:14 ratio (7.14%) of the blood collected was discarded only due to the presence of TTI. The highest discard rate was recorded from HBV infected units 57.1%, followed by HIV 21.40%, syphilis 10.7%, HCV 7.10%, and malaria 3.60%. Overall, TTIs were found in males (7.8%), married (2.5%), rural (8%), private/NGO employed donors (28.6%), 45–54 age group (20%), and in replacement/family donors (16.1%) (p = 0.039).
Conclusion: Conclusion: The prevalence of TTIs in the Hawassa blood bank center was significantly high. HBV infection was the major cause for TTIs. Recommendations: Overall, effective clinical and laboratory screening of blood donors is essential. Proper treatment of TTI positive cases and a good donor selection program will help to reduce the prevalence of TTIs in donor units. Blood bank programs should give much more consideration in screening and diagnosis of HBV which is the main TTI that causes a high discard rate of blood.

Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Southern Ethiopia, Transfusion transmitted infections, Volunteer donors

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Author Contributions
Fisseha Bonja – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Mintewab Hussein – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Jemal Alemu – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Daniel Gemechu – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Misganaw Birhaneselassie – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2017 Fisseha Bonja et al.This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



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